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During Ramadan

Things which do not break the Fast

1.The using of Miswak
2.To take bath during the day or to pour water, overhead due to the pang of summer heat.
3.To smell perfume.
4.To apply Surmah (Kohl) in the eyes, or oil to the hair.
5.To eat or drink in forgetfulness.
6.To inhale a fly or smoke or dust without one's will or intention.
7.To pour water into the ear unintentionally.
8.To swallow saliva or phlegm.
9.To gargle or take water in the nose, while performing ablution (Wadu), but care should be taken that no part of water enters the throat.
10.To kiss one's wife. It is sexual intercourse which is prohibited during fast. One is allowed to kiss one's wife, provided one is sure that one would not yield to sexual lust.
11.To take out blood from the body for treatment.
12.To have a wet dream in the day.
13.Where one is in need of a Ghusl (Bath) due to a wet dream or intercourse during the night, and did not perform bath before Subh Saadiq (dawn).

Things which Break the Fast

1.Eating or drinking breaks the Saum.
2.Sexual intercourse even if there is no emergence of semen.
3.Smoking.
4.Inhaling smoke by one's own action, e.g. inhailing the smoke of incense, etc.
5.Apllication of medication into the anus.
6.Swallowing any substance or object which is not normally consumed as food or medicine, e.g. pebbles, paper, a coin, etc.
7.Pouring oil into the ears.
8.Saliva mingled with blood will break the fast if the taste of blood is discernible when swallowing it.
9.Eating deliberately after having eaten mistakenly. (Eating by mistake does not break the fast).
10.Water slipping down the throat while making wudhu even if not done deliberately.
11.Deliberately inducing oneself to vomit will break the fast if the vomit is mouthful. If the emergence of the vomit cannot be restrained, the vomit will be said to be a mouthful. Vomitting less than a mouthful will not break the fast even if deliberately induced.
12.A food particle the size of a chana (about the size of half a pea) becoming unstuck from the teeth and slipping down the throat.
13.Applying drops of medicine into the nostrils.
14.Masturbation. In addition to it nullifying the Saum, it is an immoral and a sinful act. The perpetrator has been cursed by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu alaihi wasallam).
15.Medical tests undertaken by women in which any instrument, etc., isinternally inserted.
16.Ejaculation as a result of caressing and fondling the wife even if there was no sexual intercourse.

Makrooh during Saum

SOME things, while not breaking the fast, are nevertheless Makrooh to do during fasting. Makrooh means detestable and in this context Makrooh things are sinful. Makrooh things bring about a decrease in the thawab reward of the Saum. It is, therefore, essential to abstain from committing Makrooh acts. The following acts are Makrooh during fasting.

1.Tasting food, etc., is Makrooh if done unnecessarily. If an ill-tempered husbandshows his unjustified wrath when food has not been prepared to satisfy his taste, itwill be permissible for the wife to taste the food while she is preparing it. As long as nothing goes down her throat, her fast will be valid and her act of tasting will not be Makrooh.
2.Using powder or paste to clean the teeth. If anything of these substances slips down the throat, the Saum is nullified.
3.Caressing, fondling or kissing the wife. If ejaculation does not occur, the Saum will be Valid.
4.To put water in the nose at times other than when making Wudhu.
5.To rinse the mouth at times other than when making Wudhu.
6.To take ghusl merely for cooling.
7.To swim.
8.To unnecessarily apply ointment to the lips. If, however due to pain caused by cracked lips, ointment is applied, care should be taken to prevent licking the ointment.
9.To unnecessarily chew when in doubt as regards the existence of Sahri time. If later it transpires that Sahri time had in fact expired, Qadha will be obligatory.
10.To eat when in doubt as regards the existence of Sahri time. If later it transpires that Sahri time had in fact expired, Qadha will be obligatory.
11.To make Iftar (i.e. to break the fast) when in doubt as to the time of sunset. If ittranspires that the time when Iftar was made the sun had not yet set, Qadha will be obligatory.
12.Participating in un-Islamic activities such as watching television and playing games such as chess, draughts, monopoly, etc. The thawab of the Saum is destroyed by indulgence in such unlawful activities.
13.Gheebat or backbiting.
14.To gargle the mouth when making Wudhu.

Kaffarah of Ramadan

KAFFARAH (compensation) is the penalty which is imposed by the Shariah for the deliberate and flagrant nullification of the Saum of Ramadan.

1.Kaffarah applies to only the Saum of Ramadan.
2.Kaffarah comes into force only if the Niyyat for fasting was made at night, i.e. before Subah Sadiq. Thus, if Niyyat was made during the night to fast the following day, and then the fast is broken without valid reason, the Kaffarah penalty comes into effect.
3.Kaffarah for flagrantly breaking a fast of Ramadan is to fast 60 consecutive days-sixty days, one after the other, without missing any day in between.
4.The Kaffarah will be rendered invalid if for any reason be it a valid reason, even a single day is omitted during the 60 day-Kaffarah course. Thus if a person fasted for 59 days and failed to fast on the sixtieth day due to illness, he will have to start the Kaffarah all over again. The only interruption which will not invalidate the Kaffarah is Haydh (the monthly menses of women).
5.A Kaffarah interrupted by the intervention of Nifaas will be rendered invalid.
6.A person who is unable to discharge the Kaffarah because of ill-health or very old age, will have to feed 60 poor persons. Each miskeen (poor) should be given two full meals for the day or the amount in cash which is given as Sadaqah Fitr. This amount is the price of approximately 2 kilograms bread flour. Instead of the cash, the flour may also be given.
7.A single Ramadan makes Wajib only one Kaffarah irrespective of the number offasts flagrantly broken during that Ramadan.
8.If fasts were flagrantly nullified in more than one Ramadan, the number of Kaffarah will be equal to the number of Ramadan. Thus, if fasts were flagrantly broken in three different Ramadans, three different Kaffarah will be obligatory.
9.When he Kaffarah is commenced on the 1st day of the Islamic month, then fasting two full Islamic months will suffice for the Kaffarah even if the total number of days in the two months are 58 days (29 day months). If, however, the Kaffarah is started during the course of the month, then it will be necessary to fast a full 60 days.

Qadha Saum

QADHA means to fulfill or to compensate for fasts which are not executed when they were due.

1.It is necessary to make Qadha of Saum as soon as possible since one does notknow when death will overtake one. While it is not Wajib to make the Qadhaimmediately after Ramadan or on any other specific days, Qadha should not beunnecessarily delayed.
2.Qadha Saum belongs to the second class of Wahjib fasting. For the validity ofQadha Saum it is essential to make Niyyat during the night, i.e. before Subah Sadiq.
3.Saum omitted on account of Haydh and Nifaas has to be made Qadha.
4.It is not obligatory to keep the Qadha Saum all at once (consecutively). The Qadha Saum may be spread over a period or they may be kept consecutively.
5.If by the time death approaches, the Qadha has not yet been discharged, it will then be obligatory to make a wasiyyat (bequest) for payment of Fidyah.
6.Similarly, if due to old age or sickness one is unable to fast and the Qadha has not yet been executed, wasiyyat to pay Fidyah will be wajib(obligatory).